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VCA & Associates - Solicitors & Barristers | Email: admin@vcalaw.com | 

www.vcalaw.com

 

  

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 

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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM 

Independence - Freedom - Happiness 

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Law No. 10/2012/QH13 

 

 

LABOR CODE 

Pursuant to the Constitution 1992 of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam amended and supplemented 
under the Resolution No. 51/2001/QH10; 

The National Assembly promulgates the Labor Code. 

Chapter I 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 

Article 1. Scope of regulation 

The Labor Code specifies the labor standards; the rights, obligations and responsibilities of the 
employees, the employers, the labor representative organizations, the employer representative 
organizations in the labor relation and other relations directly related to the labor relation, the State 
management of labor. 

Article 2. Subjects of application 

1. The Vietnamese employees, apprentices, interns and other employees specified in this Code. 

2. The employers. 

3. Foreign employees working in Vietnam. 

4. Other individuals, agencies and organizations directly related to the labor relation. 

Article 3. Interpretation of terms  

In this Code, the following terms are construed as follows: 

1. Employees are people from 15 years old and above, capable of working, working under labor 
contracts, receiving salaries and subject to the management of the employers.  

2. The employers are enterprises, agencies, organizations, cooperatives, households and individuals 
hiring, employing employees under labor contracts. The individuals must be sufficiently capable of 
civil acts.  

3. The labor collectives are organized collectives of the employees working for one employer or in 
one division under the organizational structure of the employer. 

4. The internal labor representative organizations are the executive board of the internal Union or the 
executive board of the direct superior Union if the internal Union has not been established  

5. The employer representative organizations are organizations legally established to represent and 
protect the lawful rights and interests of the employers in the labor relation.  

6. Labor relation is the social relation occurring while hiring or employing, paying salaries between the 
employee and the employer.  

7. Labor dispute is the dispute over the rights, obligations and interests arising in the labor relation. 

The labor disputes include the personal labor dispute between the employee and the employer, and 
the collective labor dispute between the labor collective and the employer. 

8. Collective labor dispute over rights is the dispute between the labor collective and the employer 
arising out of the inconsistent explanation and implementation of the law provisions on labor, the 
collective labor agreement, the labor regulations and other lawful agreements and regulations. 

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9. The collective labor dispute over interests is the labor dispute arising when the labor collective 
requests the establishment of new working conditions compared to the law provisions on labor, the 
collective labor agreement, labor regulations and other lawful agreements and regulations during the 
negotiation between the labor collective and the employers.   

10. Coercive labor is the use of force, the threat to use force or other tricks to coerce other people to 
work involuntarily. 

Article 4. The State policies on labor 

1. Ensuring the legitimate rights and interests of the employees; encouraging agreements that ensure 
more favorable conditions for the employees than that in the law provisions on labor; encouraging 
employees to purchase stocks and contribute capital to the production and business development. 

2. Ensuring the lawful rights and interests of the employers, managing labor in a legal, democratic, 
equitable, civilized manner,  and enhance the social responsibilities. 

3. Facilitating the employment creation, self-employment, vocational training and learning towards 
employment opportunities, facilitating the production and business that attract a lot of labor.  

4. Planning the development and distribution of labor force; providing vocational training and skill 
improvement courses for employees, offering incentives to employees with great professional 
expertise that satisfy the modernization and industrialization requirements of the country.  

5. Planning the labor market development, diversifying the means of connection between the labor 
supply and demand. 

6. Guiding the communication and collective negotiation between employees and employers, building 
stable, progressive and harmonious labor relations. 

7. Ensuring the gender equality; imposing labor regulations and social policies in order to protect 
female employees, disabled employees, elderly employees and underage employees. 

Article 5. Rights and duties of employees 

1. The employees are entitled to: 

a) Work, independently select works, vocations, get vocational training and improvement without 
discrimination;  

b) Receive salaries consistently with the vocational skills and grade on the basis of the agreement 
with the employer; receive work protection, work in safe and hygienic conditions; take official leave, 
paid annual leave and enjoy collective benefits;  

c) Establish, join and participate in activities of the Union, professional organizations and other 
organizations as prescribed by law; request and participating in discussions with the employer, 
exercise the democratic regulation and get consultancy at workplaces in order to protect the lawful 
rights and interests; participate in the management under the regulations of the employer. 

d) Unilaterally terminate the labor contract as prescribed by law; 

dd) Be on strike. 

2. The employees are responsible to: 

a) Perform the labor contract and the collective labor agreement;  

b) Observe the labor discipline, labor regulations and obey the lawful management of the employer;  

c) Implement the law provisions on social insurance and law provisions on medical insurance. 

Article 6. Rights and obligations of employers  

1. The employers are entitled to: 

a) Employ, arrange and manage labor according to the demand for production and business; 
commend and discipline for violations of labor discipline; 

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b) Establish, join and participate in the activities of professional organizations and other organizations 
as prescribed by law; 

c) Request the labor collective to discuss, negotiate and conclude the collective labor agreement; 
participate in settling labor disputes and strikes; discuss with the Union about the problem in labor 
relations, improve the material and mental life of the employees; 

d) Temporarily shut down the workplace.  

2. The employers are responsible to:  

a) Perform the labor contract, collective labor agreement and other agreements with employees, 
respect the honor and dignity of employees; 

b) Establish the mechanism and discuss with the labor collective at the enterprise and strictly observe 
the internal democratic regulations; 

c) Make the labor management book, salary book and present them at the request from competent 
agencies; 

d) Declare the employment within 30 days as from starting the operation, periodically make and send 
reports on the change in the labor status during the operation to local State labor management 
agencies; 

dd) Implement the law provisions on social insurance and law provisions on medical insurance. 

Article 7. Labor relations 

1. Labor relation between the employee or the labor collective with the employer is established 
through communication, negotiation and agreement in a voluntary, affable, equitable, cooperative 
manner, in which the lawful rights and interests are mutually respected. 

2. The Union, the employer representative organizations shall join the State agencies in building the 
stable, progressive and harmonious labor relations, supervising the implementation of law provisions 
on labor; protecting the lawful rights and interests of employees and the employers. 

Article 8. Prohibited acts 

1. Discrimination by sex, race, social class, marital status, belief, religion, discrimination against HIV 
sufferers, disabled people or against the reasons for establishing, joining and participate in the Union 
activities.  

2. Maltreatment of employees, sexual harassment at workplaces. 

3. Coercive labor. 

4. Exploiting vocational training and apprenticeship to make profit, exploit labor or entice, coerce the 
vocational learners, apprentices into committing unlawful acts. 

5. Using untrained employees or employees without national vocational certificates to do the jobs that 
required trained employees or employees with national vocational certificates 

6. Deceitfully enticing and advertising in order to cheat employees or exploiting the employment 
services to contractually send employees abroad to commit unlawful acts. 

7. Illegally using underage labor. 

Chapter II 

EMPLOYMENTS 

Article 9. Employments and employment creation. 

1. Employments are activities that generate incomes that the law does not prohibit 

2. The State, the employers and the society are responsible to create employments and ensure that 
everyone capable of working is offered employment possibilities. 

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