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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
Law No. 10/2012/QH13
Pursuant to the Constitution 1992 of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam amended and supplemented
under the Resolution No. 51/2001/QH10;
The National Assembly promulgates the Labor Code.
Article 1. Scope of regulation
The Labor Code specifies the labor standards; the rights, obligations and responsibilities of the
employees, the employers, the labor representative organizations, the employer representative
organizations in the labor relation and other relations directly related to the labor relation, the State
management of labor.
Article 2. Subjects of application
1. The Vietnamese employees, apprentices, interns and other employees specified in this Code.
2. The employers.
3. Foreign employees working in Vietnam.
4. Other individuals, agencies and organizations directly related to the labor relation.
Article 3. Interpretation of terms
In this Code, the following terms are construed as follows:
1. Employees are people from 15 years old and above, capable of working, working under labor
contracts, receiving salaries and subject to the management of the employers.
2. The employers are enterprises, agencies, organizations, cooperatives, households and individuals
hiring, employing employees under labor contracts. The individuals must be sufficiently capable of
3. The labor collectives are organized collectives of the employees working for one employer or in
one division under the organizational structure of the employer.
4. The internal labor representative organizations are the executive board of the internal Union or the
executive board of the direct superior Union if the internal Union has not been established
5. The employer representative organizations are organizations legally established to represent and
protect the lawful rights and interests of the employers in the labor relation.
6. Labor relation is the social relation occurring while hiring or employing, paying salaries between the
employee and the employer.
7. Labor dispute is the dispute over the rights, obligations and interests arising in the labor relation.
The labor disputes include the personal labor dispute between the employee and the employer, and
the collective labor dispute between the labor collective and the employer.
8. Collective labor dispute over rights is the dispute between the labor collective and the employer
arising out of the inconsistent explanation and implementation of the law provisions on labor, the
collective labor agreement, the labor regulations and other lawful agreements and regulations.